1. Mathematical Symbols

Table B.1. Symbolic Notation

Symbol  Interpretation 
{ } brackets used to indicate a set
= assignment
equivalence
non-equivalence
isomorphism
conjunction (logical and)
disjunction (logical or)
¬ negation (logical not)
there exists
for every” , “for all
union
intersection
subset
superset
proper subset
proper superset
element operator

Symbol  Interpretation 
the full set: everything
the null set: nothing
sum: summation or collection
product: intersection or dichotomy
U the physical universe
O the subjective universe
V the conceptual universe
Ψ perception
Δ communication
Φ conception
ε naming